Security (S&B/CBRNE) Magazine

Summer 2017

Security & Border Protection and CST & CBRNE Source Book, published jointly, concentrate on WMD response, NGB training, counterterrorism, and border security

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Civil Support Teams to participate in test activities, and the ever increas- ing speed of processing and data-throughput of computational devices and detectors. CST & CBRNE: From a testing perspective, what are some areas of CA that are driving innovation in technology implementation and execution. Mr. Rogers: Liquid aerosol detection and identification are two requirements that are driving innovation in testing at DPG. The Nation's intelligence community has increasingly identified broadening states of matter (vapor, liquid, solid) expected to be used in potential threat scenarios to our nation's defenders; including some states of matter not previously deemed a significant threat. During the last six years, Dugway has developed methods and test equipment to provide threat representative conditions for new detector testing using aerosol generation, detection, and identification. These conditions include particles or aerosols in liquid or solid form. Dugway has developed test methods for characterizing the mass and concentration of vapor, discovering and reporting (with high con- fidence) those pieces of data with aerosols, generating the right size of particles, keeping them suspended long enough to transport to the system under test, and determining exactly what is being delivered to the system under test just as it happens in a real world incident. New test method development takes years of effort and often requires new testing instruments. Dugway's investments in test instruments include devices that can determine the size of the particles, how many are present in the atmo- sphere, and—the real prize—identification of the chemical compound. These data elements are then used to develop toxicity models that feed information to scientists that calculate protection factors for equipping our nation's defenders, which, in turn, help keep our defenders safe when entering chemically-dangerous environments. CST & CBRNE: As avoidance may not always be possible, what are the focus areas within decontamination testing that are seeing improvement? Mr. Rogers: One area of focus is a current development occurring outside of Dugway, for use in identifying the potential contamination of materiel, is an enzymatic solution that changes colors in the presence of chemical agent. Until recently, understanding the contamination level was something performed with handheld instruments that may or may not have low enough detection limits to identify and determine potential contamination. With the proposed enzymatic solution, an item is sprayed with the mixture and within seconds a color change indicates a level of cleanliness. Depending on the intensity of the color change, it provides information for a judgement to further decontaminate the materiel or to consider it clean enough. Dugway is testing this solution with real chemical agents in chambers across broad temperature and humidity profiles. These data results are expected to be ready for release in fall of 2017. CST & CBRNE: Please speak to current focus efforts regarding capabilities in chemical testing as they have evolved over recent decades. Mr. Rogers: Ideal defense warning instruments indicate danger well before a person enters into an unknown environment. These instruments, consequently, require remote sensing capability. Remote sensing is more difficult than touching or direct interrogation of a chemical. One method of remote sensing is to send light or photons into the environment and detect what changes occur to the photons based on interacting with chemical compounds. This requires sensors that can detect very small changes in photonic energy that until recently have not been discernable by smaller, less capable instruments. As industry increases the capability for data processing through ever increasingly powerful computing technology, the contamination avoidance community benefits by using this capability to develop instruments to meet the proximal need. These smaller and more powerful instruments can process larger data streams and promise an increased ability to sense dangerous environments. Dugway is developing testing capability for these proximal instruments by investing in new methods and infrastructure. CST & CBRNE: From a specific chemical signature perspective, how is Dugway helping enable more efficient identification and neutralization determination for field and training applications? Mr. Rogers: Dugway is partnering with multiple countries to develop a solution of identification for classes of chemical compounds that interest domestic emergency responders. These international governmental partners are teaming with experts in aerosol, chemical compound fate in natural and indoor environments, computation fluid design modeling, spectroscopy, and industrial hygiene to determine the toxicity, danger, and possible protective equipment and procedures to handle an increasing public health hazard. This domestic health hazard is growing with the use of illicit drug use across the world. Dugway is laying the foundation for future tests of emerging threat compounds by providing its testing expertise and data to national and international partners. CST & CBRNE: In terms of challenges that Dugway is addressing through partnering with industry, speak to ways chemical testing is advancing to meet current readiness requirements. Mr. Rogers: The Chemical Test Division, a division of the West Desert Test Center at Dugway, in collaboration with the Joint Product Manager Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High Yield Explosives (CBRNE) Analytics and Response Systems (AR&S), has partnered with civil support teams from ten different areas of the country in an effort to incorporate Early User feedback into developmental test and evaluation. These CST members traveled to Dugway, where they were provided training, in accordance with DoD and Army regulations, on the safety procedures of its surety laboratories. Once integrated into the CTD surety test environment, these CST survey team members operated various field confirmatory analytical instruments using chemical agent compounds in various sample matrices such as soil, sand, plant, and air. Enabling CST members to run these instruments with non-recoverable chemical agent is providing both experience for the operator and vital information to the acquisition test community and instrument developer on improved methods for detection and identification. As these highly skilled operators use the instruments based on their tactics, techniques, and procedures, the CA community has increased its ability to glean useful information from the field confirmatory analysis of blind test samples from an operational perspective. THREAT READINESS ENHANCING ID AND DECON Summer 2017 | S&B / CST & CBRNE | 25

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